- Item #: i_200340Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 96Located in an ancient volcanic zone in the Sonoma County, Knights Valley (pictured above) offers incredibly unique and diverse soils with a climate perfectly suited to Bordeaux varietals, as demonstrated by the delicious wines made by Peter Michael, Keplinger and Beringer. Anakota is one of Knights Valley's stars that produces wines that personify the rustic elegance and spirit of this volcanic area. With Mount St. Helena looking down upon the vineyard, prevailing westerly winds pass over a large, cold pond and blow uphill, parallel to the rows of vines. These cooling breezes slow down the ripening of the grapes and result in wines that are packed with elegance, complexity and finesse. The wines are crafted by Pierre Seillan, whose deft hand has also created 100 point wines at Verite!
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 96 POINTS - "Fruit for this was harvested on September 8th, and the wine was bottled six months ago. Deep garnet-purple colored, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Helena Montana Vineyard gives up exuberant notions of warm blueberries, creme de cassis, lilacs and chocolate box with hints of fertile loam, licorice and menthol. Medium-bodied, elegant, very fresh and juicy, the palate has beautifully ripe, fine-grained tannins supporting the generous fruit, finishing long and perfumed. 1,200 cases produced."
- Item #: i_203120Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 94ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 94 POINTS - "Composed of 97% Cabernet Sauvignon and 3% Petit Verdot, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Private Reserve Georges de Latour was aged for 22 months in French oak, 95% new. Deep garnet-purple colored, the nose is open and ready for business, featuring notions of redcurrant jelly, black raspberries, boysenberries and spice cake with touches of red roses, camphor, dark chocolate and new leather. The medium to full-bodied palate delivers bags of fragrant red and black fruit preserves, framed by plush tannins and oodles of freshness, finishing long and perfumed. This is a very pretty expression of this vintage, which is drinking beautifully now and yet should cellar for a good 20 years or more. 6,974 cases were made."
- Item #: i_208030Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 94Vinous Media: 92Jeb Dunnuck: 96 PointsJEB DUNNUCK 96 POINTS - "Coming from estate fruit on Howell Mountain and made from 88% Cabernet Sauvignon and 4% each of Malbec, Petit Verdot, and Merlot, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Estate offers a darker, more mineral-driven style compared to the Napa release. It has beautiful blackcurrant, cassis, forest floor, graphite, and tobacco leaf-like aromas and flavors. Deep, full-bodied, beautifully polished and elegant, it's another remarkable effort from this team. As Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon goes, it's a brilliant value!"
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 94 POINTS - "The 2017 Cade Estate Cabernet Sauvignon, blended with 4% Malbec, 4% Petit Verdot and 4% Merlot, is deep garnet-purple colored and a little closed, slowly giving up warm cassis, blackberry tart and mulberries with touches of spice box, pencil shavings and Marmite toast. The full-bodied palate is firm, grainy and muscular with an earthy expression and just enough freshness, finishing on a lingering mineral note."
ANTONIO GALLONI 92 POINTS - "The 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Estate is a dense, chewy Howell Mountain wine. A blast of black cherry, plum, licorice, smoke, leather, bittersweet chocolate, spice and tobacco hit the palate. The 2017 is bold and immediate in feel, but it also has plenty of structure. I would give it a few years to soften but this is a potent, brooding wine with a bright future."
- Item #: i_207440Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 94Jeb Dunnuck: 95 PointsJEB DUNNUCK 95+ POINTS - "One of the flagship releases, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Benchland Select is all Cabernet Sauvignon that spent 22 months in 60% new French oak. Deep purple-hued with a classic Cabernet nose of blackcurrants, cassis, graphite, cedary spice, and chocolate, this puppy hits the palate with full-bodied richness, an elegant, seamless texture, a chalky minerality, and a great finish. It's a smoking good Cabernet Sauvignon that will improve with 2-5 years of bottle age and cruise for two decades or more. This 2017 matches what this estate achieved in 2016 and 2015."
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 94 POINTS - "Bottled only three weeks ago, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Benchland Select is 100% Cabernet Sauvignon, with 44% of the fruit coming from Vine Hill Ranch, 52% from Hill Ranch and 4% from Cakebread Oakville Ranch. It was aged 22 months in 60% new French oak. Very deep purple-black colored, it slowly emerges from the glass to reveal notions of baked black cherries, stewed black plums and warm cassis with touches of aged meat, dark chocolate, bay leaves and pencil shavings. Medium to full-bodied, the palate packs in the black fruits, supported by bags of freshness and a firm, grainy texture, finishing long and with tons of energy."
- Item #: i_211450Bottle Size: 750mlVinous Media: 97ANTONIO GALLONI 97 POINTS - "I was quite simply blown away by the wines I tasted from Cornell this year. It wasn't that long ago that I didn't include these wines in my regional reports because they weren't interesting enough. Somewhere around 2013, things started to change for the better. Today, Cornell is one of the most exciting and dynamic estate wineries in northern California. The rugged hillside vineyard lies on Spring Mountain, just beyond Pride, on the Sonoma side of the mountain, a part of Sonoma that is especially well suited to the cultivation of Bordeaux varieties. Winemaker Elizabeth Tangney and Consulting Winemaker Francoise Peschon are doing brilliant work. The 2017 turned out beautifully, while the 2018 may very well turn out to be epic. Readers who enjoy the more classically-leaning side of Napa/Sonoma Cabernet will absolutely adore these wines. Kudos to Henry and Vanessa Cornell for their unrelenting drive to excellence. The results of many years of hard work and significant investment are in the glass."
"The 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon is every bit as impressive as it was last year. A wine of soaring aromatic intensity and extraordinary balance, the 2017 captivates all the senses with its exotic beauty. Ripe red cherry fruit, blood orange, spice, rose petal, menthol and licorice build as the wine gains volume and resonance with a bit of air. Quite simply, the 2017 is breathtaking. Don't miss it."
- Item #: i_214880Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 96Vinous Media: 95-96Jeb Dunnuck: 97 PointsThe greatness of DAOU Mountain was foretold many decades ago when renowned winemaking authority Andre Tchelistcheff hailed it as "A JEWEL OF ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTS."
The calcareous clay soil here is comparable to Bordeaux's Right Bank, while the buffered Pacific microclimate is similar to Saint Helena-- a perfect confluence of elements. DAOU Mountain is blessed with extraordinary phenolic output, yielding some of the darkest, most deeply textured wines in the world. These wines are never acidified, as the ideal level of acidity comes naturally.
"Our wines are natural and pure: handpicked, hand-made and always free of artificial additives." All fruit from DAOU Mountain is handpicked, then sorted both by human eye and cutting-edge optical technology to ensure absolute fruit purity. Using only 100 percent free run juice, Winemaker Daniel Daou initiates fermentation with native yeasts cultivated from the estate. Each fermentation is customized by measuring phenolic composition and using sensory analysis, enabling Daniel to orchestrate natural balance and texture.
"We are committed to multifaceted sustainable practices that have earned our vineyard SIP (Sustainability in Practice) certification. The flavors and aromas you experience in DAOU wines originate from the earth and are poured into each bottle with an acute mindfulness for human and environmental well-being. ”
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 97 POINTS - "The 2017 Soul Of A Lion is a blend of 80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 12% Cabernet Franc and 8% Petit Verdot aged 22 months in 100% new French oak. It has a deep ruby-purple color and wonderfully unique expression, with scents of forest floor, underbrush, English breakfast tea, espresso, blackcurrant bud, dark chocolate and exotic flowers mingling over a core of perfectly ripe wild blackberries and Morello cherries, all complemented by a classy framing of new oak spices. The medium to full-bodied palate is slow to unfurl, with a frame like liquid silk and a very long finish that gives up layer after layer of nuanced flavors. Wow!"
JEB DUNNUCK 96 POINTS - "The 2017 Soul Of A Lion offers a forward, bona fide fruit bomb style yet has plenty of class. A sweet nose of cassis, Asian spice, cedar box, and chocolate gives way to a full-bodied, hedonistic 2017 that stays balanced and layered. This cuvee always delivers and the 2017 is just an incredible drink."
ANTONIO GALLONI'S VINOUS MEDIA 95-96 POINTS - "Inky ruby. Primary dark berry, cherry pit and pipe tobacco aromas are complemented by hints of vanillin oak, mocha and baking spices. Broad and fleshy in the mouth, offering sweet black cherry and cassis flavors and suggestions of dark chocolate, espresso and vanilla. Becomes smokier with air and finishes with superb clarity and strong, spicy persistence. (raised in new French oak barrels for 22 months)"
- Item #: i_220015Bottle Size: 1.5LCrafted by perhaps the #1 undiscovered talent in Napa today, winemaker Benoit Touguette, was Andy Erickson's right hand man, managing day-to-day wine production at Screaming Eagle during the 2005/2006 vintages (both 98 points) and the legendary 2007 vintage (100 points). Benoit also happens to be the French protege of world-famous winemaker Michel Rolland and assisted him along with Andy Erickson in launching Ovid. Today, Benoit is leveraging his substantial talent and connections in Napa to craft just five barrels of a glorious micro-production Cabernet under his new personal label he calls Fait Main which means "hand-crafted" in French. The fruit for this Cabernet Sauvignon comes from prime vineyards in Pritchard Hill, Saint Helena, Calistoga, Oakville, and Yountville.
- Item #: i_219760Bottle Size: 750mlThe Martin Stelling Vineyard, located behind the winery in Oakville, is the cornerstone of Far Niente Cabernet Sauvignon. Planted on some of the most beautiful, gravelly loam soil in the Napa Valley, the vineyard uniformly produces wines with supple tannins, bright, forward fruit, and beautiful tannin structure.
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 92 POINTS - "The 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Estate Bottled is blended of 95.5% Cabernet Sauvignon, 3.25% Petit Verdot and 0.25% Malbec. Deep purple-black colored, it has pronounced black currant pastilles, black cherry compote and red currant preserves notes with touches of dried herbs, unsmoked cigars and fallen leaves plus a waft of cedar. Medium to full-bodied, it has a firm texture of grainy tannins and oodles of freshness supporting the muscular black fruit, finishing with an herbal lift."
- Item #: i_219680Bottle Size: 1.5LThe 2017 Faust Cabernet is a blend of their estate vineyards in Coombsville and Rutherford and mountain sourcing in Atlas Peak, Mount Veeder and Howell Mountain. Intense yet fresh with juicy blue and black notes. Notes of dark chocolate and dried herbs seduce the palate while silky tannins and lifting acidity leads to a layered and lingering finish.
- Item #: i_223530Bottle Size: 750mlVinous Media: 95+ANTONIO GALLONI 95+ POINTS - "Forman's 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon is fabulous. Rich and beautifully layered in the glass, the 2017 has gorgeous depth and a touch of exoticism that is so appealing. Ripe red berry fruit, floral overtones and a touch of spice are all laced together. Just bottled, the 2017 is super impressive, even in the early going. This is an especially racy style for Ric Forman, and yet he clearly got every ounce of potential out of the year."
- Item #: i_238220Bottle Size: 750mlA blend of 90% Cabernet Sauvignon, 4% Cabernet Franc, 3% Saint Macaire, and 3% Malbec, this wine was aged for 20 months in 100% new French oak. Beck Vineyard, in the Creston District of Paso Robles, is a unique, high elevation site that sits at 1,700 feet above the early morning fog line. Its calcareous soils and cooling afternoon winds are perfect for growing Cabernet Sauvignon. The Cabernet from this vineyard ripens early with excellent color, purity of fruit, and phenolic maturity. Incorporation of Cabernet Franc brings freshness to the blend, while the rare Bordeaux variety, Saint-Macaire, brings density and a savory character. Malbec add structure, color, and a component of bright fruit.
- Item #: i_232250Bottle Size: 750mlVinous Media: 96Jeb Dunnuck: 95 PointsANTONIO GALLONI 96 POINTS - "The 2017 El Alma de Jonata, the estate's Cabernet Franc-based wine, is bright, aromatically explosive and just striking in its beauty. Bright red fruit, blood orange, menthol and plum race out of the glass in a wine endowed with tremendous energy, tension and pure class. Medium in body, with tremendous aromatic intensity and drive, the Alma is positively striking. The 2017 is one of the very finest editions I can remember tasting. In a word: dazzling."
JEB DUNNUCK 95 POINTS - "The 300 case 2017 El Alma De Jonata is the Cabernet Franc-dominated cuvee, a blend of 86% Cabernet Franc, 14% Cabernet Sauvignon. Bright cherry, blackberry, ground herbs, lead pencil, and crushed violet notes all emerge from the glass, and this beauty is incredibly seamless, pure, and polished on the palate. With ultra-fine tannins, a great mid-palate, and plenty of structure, it's a more fresh, focused, classic example of this cuvee. Hide bottles for 4-5 years and enjoy over the following two decades."
- Item #: i_232460Bottle Size: 750mlVinous Media: 97Jeb Dunnuck: 97ANTONIO GALLONI 97 POINTS - "The 2017 El Desafio de Jonata is another positively stellar wine in this range. Two thousand seventeen is one of the few years in which Cabernet is so dominant. Rich and explosive, with tremendous vertical thrust, the 2017 oozes with class and intensity. Creme de cassis, new leather, licorice, sweet spice and menthol are some of the many notes that build as this statuesque, alluring wine shows off its pedigree. In 2017, the blend is 95% Cabernet Sauvignon, 3% Merlot and 2% Cabernet Franc. Wow...!"
JEB DUNNUCK 97 POINTS - "The Cabernet Sauvignon-dominated cuvee is the 2017 El Desafio De Jonata, which includes 95% Cabernet Sauvignon, 3% Merlot, and 2% Cabernet Franc. It's another inky colored wine from this team and offers a brilliant bouquet of creme de cassis, tobacco leaf, cedar, bay leaf, and crushed rocks. Beautifully concentrated and balanced, with a Bordeaux-like structure and regal style, it's a magical Cabernet Sauvignon that's going to benefit from 7-8 years of bottle age yet keep for 20-30 years."
- Item #: i_277570Bottle Size: 750mlJeb Dunnuck: 92 PointsJEB DUNNUCK 92-94 POINTS - "Consistently thrilling wines come from l'Aventure, which is run with incredible talent and passion by St. Emilion native Stephan Asseo. His 2016s are incredible efforts, and the 2017 more Rhone blends are certainly in the same ballpark. Due to the heat spikes at harvest, Bordeaux varieties were much more difficult and hit or miss."
"Lastly, the 2017 Estate Cuvee shows the effects of the heat spikes and has some firm, angular tannins that are buffered by lots of blackcurrant fruit. It has classic graphite, licorice, and lead pencil aromas, medium to full body, and good length, yet it's certainly not going to make you forget this brilliant 2016. Nevertheless, my money is on it being an outstanding wine."
- Item #: i_204700Bottle Size: 750mlJeb Dunnuck: 96 PointsJEB DUNNUCK 96 POINTS - "From a single vineyard in Calistoga, the 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Amoenus isn't far off what the estate produced in 2016. It's a pure, full-bodied, powerful 2017 that does everything right. Loads of blueberries, cassis, Asian spice, and flowery incense define the bouquet, and it has a pure, classic, focused style on the palate. I love its purity of fruit, it has ripe, present tannins, and while it needs 2-3 years of bottle age, it's going to evolve gracefully for 15-20 years."
- Item #: i_247500Bottle Size: 750mlJeb Dunnuck: 96 PointsBetty O'Shaughnessy's Howell Mountain property is simply...STUNNING! Every single individual who walks through the doors of the winery eventually leaves feeling like they are family and 100% of the time the person leaving tells their friends and family that O'Shaughnessy is a "must see" winery in the Napa Valley (hint....go visit them!). The animated Sean Capiaux makes the wine. He has worked at Peter Michael, Jordan and Pine Ridge wineries, in addition to crafting lovely Pinot Noirs under his eponymous label. The vineyards are planted on the property in an amphitheater-like setting, as to take advantage of maximum sunlight during the day. This wine is all about intensity balanced by subtlety, and has earned a stunning 96 points from Jeb Dunnuck!
JEB DUNNUCK 96 POINTS - "The 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Howell Mountain offers a slightly darker, earthier profile that carries beautiful black and blue fruits, charcoal, bouquet garni, and some obvious minerality as well as a whiff of espresso. It's rich, full-bodied, concentrated, and beautifully done. Drink it over the coming two decades. Based on 83% Cabernet Sauvignon, 4% each of Merlot and Malbec, and the rest a mix of varieties, it spent 21 months in 80% new French oak."
- Item #: i_248330Bottle Size: 375mlWine Advocate: 95Vinous Media: 95+**Please note, this is a half sized bottleANTONIO GALLONI 95+ POINTS - "A remarkable wine for the year, the 2017 Opus One is a dense, full-throttle beauty. Plush fruit and soft, silky contours give the 2017 its racy personality. Exotic, beautifully perfumed and impeccable in its balance, Opus One is one of the most complete wines of the vintage. In 2017, Opus One has a distinctly red-toned fruit profile that distinguishes it from the surrounding vintages."
ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 95 POINTS - "Opus One had picked 91% of their fruit before the fires started in 2017, and only two lots were eliminated from consideration. The 2017 Opus One, bottled in July 2019, is a blend of 81% Cabernet Sauvignon, 8.5% Petit Verdot, 5% Cabernet Franc, 4.5% Merlot and 1% Malbec. Medium to deep garnet-purple colored, it slowly grows on the nose, revealing compelling notes of baked black cherries, mulberries, black raspberries, warm cassis and blackberry pie with nuances of spice cake, yeast extract, tapenade, licorice and dusty soil with a waft of wild sage. Medium-bodied, the palate has a lively skip in its step, featuring bags of juicy raspberry and cassis-laced fruit and a refreshing line, supported by ripe, plush tannins, finishing long and graceful."
- Item #: i_248190Bottle Size: 750mlOvid Vineyards is one of the true new "cult kids on the street". Ovid's vineyards are located in the Vaca Mountains, on the eastern side of the Napa Valley. More specifically, the property is located in the area locals call "Pritchard Hill", which is were other notable producers reside, such as Chappellet, Continuum, David Arthur, Nine Suns, and Bryant Family The vineyards are meticulously maintained by David Abreu, and the wines are made by Austin Petersen.
Staying within their own four walls, it can be easy to assume that everything Ovid does is dialed in - as good as it can be. So they strive to always keep their perspective fresh and their minds open. This experiment is a first for Ovid in that they purchased the fruit from a neighboring vineyard. But Ovid didn't just buy it - they walked their rows, observing differences in clones, row orientation, sun exposure and aspect throughout the growing season, working to see what Ovid can lean from different approaches to growing grapes in the same neighborhood.
The result - 2017 Experiment N2.7 - is our second vintage from this series. Primarily Cabernet Sauvignon with small, nearly equal amounts of Merlot, Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc, the wine intrigues with notes of blackberry, cola, cocoa nibs, licorice and pencil shavings. Richness and purity of expression grace the palate in this neighborly adventure that should delight for years to come.
- Item #: i_251170Bottle Size: 750mlPilcrow was founded by wine-industry veteran Sara Beer. Raised in the United States by European parents, Sara discovered her passion for food, wine, and travel early in life. Taking on the role of winemaker was a new one for Sara. She has been the grateful beneficiary of tremendous tutoring from many role models, mentors, and friends. Her role models include those who have made some of the great wines dotting the hillsides of the Napa Valley; think Mayacamas, Diamond Creek, and Dunn. Her mentors include some of the most thoughtful vintners in both the new world and the old, including John Williams, Jean-Michel Comme, and Jean-Nicolas Meo. Her friends—including Marco DiGiulio, Keith Emerson and Toshiaki Wakayama—have helped define, challenge, and develop the wine itself.
The Ghost Block vineyard is a unicorn of sorts, being a "mountain" vineyard on the valley floor. The old vines of Ghost Block sit on the side of Yountville Hill—a mountaintop that formerly resided high above the Stags Leap District in the Vaca Mountains. Some eight million years ago, in a cataclysmic event, a portion of the Vacas toppled, tossing a peak to the west. This relocated peak (Yountville Hill) got turned on its side, revealing a unique, vertical bedding of rarely-everexposed Napa Tertiary Volcanics. Ghost Block Cabernet Sauvignon interprets this soil construct with soft, plush tannins and nervous, bright acidity. Downvalley cool mornings add a touch of black tea and rose petal to the varietal traits of blackberry and cassis, all wrapped in old-Napa elegance.
- Item #: i_252240Bottle Size: 750MLWine Advocate: 95ROBERT PARKER'S WINE ADVOCATE 95 POINTS - "Already bottled, the 2017 Quintessa displays a deep garnet-purple color. The nose needs a little coaxing before it reveals bold, expressive notes of crushed red and black plums, black currant jelly, wild blueberries and kirsch with nuances of camphor, cloves, cedar and lilacs plus a hint of oolong tea. Medium to full-bodied, the palate has beautifully expressed, elegant red and black fruit layers, with a sturdy, grainy frame and plenty of freshness, finishing long and earthy."
- Item #: i_277530Bottle Size: 750mlJeb Dunnuck: 95 PointsAfter more than a decade of "visits" to the wine country to purchase hand crafted boutique wines, and to enjoy the spectacular scenery, Steve Nordhoff, and a group of close friends decided to start the journey of creating a wine project that reflects their passion, past experiences, and love for Napa and Sonoma. If you have ever been to the Napa, Steve's story needs very little explanation as most visitors catch "the fever" upon arrival. But with Steve's numerous years of collecting many of the wines produced around the world, his educated palate would be what sets his story apart; he has gained the knowledge of what separates truly world class wine, and what makes a nice wine.
Steve wants world class! With the help of friends, and with his winemaker being Thomas Brown (who also makes the wine at Pulido-Walker, Maybach, Outpost, and Schrader), the Riverain wines are truly on their way to stun the wine world! This bottling comes from the Tench Vineyard in eastern Oakville (bordering Screaming Eagle and Rudd).
JEB DUNNUCK 95 POINTS - "Coming from the Tench Vineyard in Oakville, the deep purple-hued 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon offers a rocking bouquet of sweet black fruits interwoven with lots of chocolate, iron, black olives and an almost marine-like nuance that always seems to be present in wines from this vineyard. Medium to full-bodied, concentrated, and textured, it has silky tannins and is a straight-up brilliant Cabernet. Drink it over the coming 15-20 years."
- Item #: i_282860Bottle Size: 750mlWine Advocate: 93ROBERT PARKER 93 POINTS - "The 2017 Cabernet Sauvignon Cherryblock Vineyard, deep ruby in color, has slowly opening scents of cherry jam, tar, grilled meats, dried rose petals and graphite touches. The medium-bodied palate has excellent restraint and great balance of fruit, savory and spicy character, and it's firm but finely grained and fresh with a long finish. 1,610 cases produced."
- Item #: i_269300Bottle Size: 750mlTimeless Napa Valley is a tribute to Silver Oak co-founder Ray Duncan. Inspired by the song, Timeless, which his son David (Silver Oak Proprietor) co-wrote for Ray's 85th birthday, this new single vineyard red wine embraces Ray's entrepreneurial spirit and the lessons he taught.
Timeless Napa Valley is a single vineyard proprietary red blend from Silver Oak's Soda Canyon Ranch, tucked away in the southern benchlands of Napa Valley's Vaca Mountains. Crafted by Silver Oak winemaker Nate Weis, this wine reveals a distinct and transparent expression of a singular Napa Valley vineyard with each vintage.
Neither location nor variety can be overlooked when tasting this wine. Notes of pomegranate and cherry signify the ever-present diurnal shift at the property while aromas of wisteria, licorice and mint indicate attention paid to each block and their individually timed harvests. Carried by essences of rose, plum and tart red fruit, a mouthwatering ripple of bright acidity meets balancing, savory flavors of minty balsam, licorice and stewed black fruits. The dichotomy of plush, ripe fruit that still maintains high acidity is a rare result of the long growing season and multiple-pass harvesting techniques.